Unit 1

Purpose of law

Society is a complex system of relationships between humans that decide to live together and cooperate. For this system to work, it is necessary to establish rules. Without rules, cooperation is impossible because people’s behaviour would be too unpredictable. 

The system of rules and regulations that shapes how people relate to each other in society is called ‘The Law’. The Law aims to set sound rules that concur to the satisfaction of all members’ needs and to guide society towards the objectives it has set forward.

In this unit, we will explore how rules are established in our society. More precisely, we will study who has the authority to set formal rules and how this is done in contemporary society.
We will also introduce the notion of state and democracy.

Different kinds of rules

The Law in society is enacted through practical rules. Rules can either be formal, meaning they are written down by those in authority, or informal, meaning they are not written but developed through social interactions.

Formal rules are commonly known as laws. Laws are binding rules for every member of the society. They are made by official institutions of the ruling authority. If a member of the society breaks a law, a punishment will follow measured on the gravity of the violation. 

Informal rules include customs and morals. Customs are traditional patterns of behavior that a particular group follows, defining its sense of identity and unity. Morals relate to the individual and his capacity to distinguish what is right or wrong. It can also be heavily influenced by society. 

The main difference between formal and informal rules is punishment. The members of the society will be punished by the official authorities if they break a law, but not if they do not respect customs or moral rules.

The state



The ruling authority of contemporary countries is the state. A state is a political organisation that has sovereignty over a defined territory and a permanent population. Laws are decided and implemented by the state, which also oversees punishment in case of transgression. 




In its wider conception, the government is the system or group of people detaining power in an organized political community, such as the state. A government can take many forms, depending on how power is exercised. Democracy is the form of government where power is exercised by the people, who by their participation contribute to making the laws. Born in Ancient Greece, it has undergone several transformations through time. Contemporary democracies are defined by three main elements: popular sovereignty, human rights, and the rule of law.


Legal literacy Competence Framework

In cooperation with law experts, teachers, and students in order identify legal concepts for these age groups that will be gathered in the CF.

Producing learning materials

Focused on producing teaching and learning materials on legal literacy for teachers and students. By creating these materials there will be a sound presentation of basic legal concepts needed in the daily lives of the target groups.

Implement produced materials in school settings

After selecting schools participating in the project it will get feedback from teachers attending the Teacher Training Program. Through school projects created by students and teachers, a combination of digital tools, textbooks, and testing of MOOC, it will revive preparations for legal literacy on a practical note.

To raise awareness of legal literacy

To raise awareness of legal literacy and project results throughout live and virtual multiplier events in every partner country.

Unit Content
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